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PLOS One:加拿大学者揭示麋鹿如何躲避猎人

标签: 猎人 麋鹿 加拿大
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摘要 : 2017年6月15日,国际知名学术期刊《PLOS One》杂志在线发表了加拿大阿尔伯塔大学Henrik Thurfjell研究员的一篇研究论文,论文报道了随着雌性麋鹿变老,它们也变得更加聪明:学会了如何避免被猎人射杀
2017年6月15日,国际知名学术期刊《PLOS ONE》杂志在线发表了加拿大阿尔伯塔大学Henrik Thurfjell研究员的一篇研究论文,论文报道了随着雌性麋鹿变老,它们也变得更加聪明:学会了如何避免被猎人射杀,并且似乎会让它们的行为适应猎人携带的武器类型。研究证实,人类狩猎会影响麋鹿行为。由于人类杀死的更多是比较胆大的动物,因此它们选择了更加谨慎的行为。Henrik Thurfjell想知道,这些动物是否还可能随着年龄渐长学会如何保持安全。 Thurfjell和同事将GPS跟踪项圈放到49只生活在加拿大西部的雌性麋鹿身上,然后在6年的时间里监控了它们的行为。研究发现,不同年龄段的麋鹿表现出的行为也不相同。 例如,和两岁的麋鹿相比,4岁的麋鹿更加谨慎。不过,这并非仅仅因为所有天生大胆的麋鹿在年纪还小时便被杀死。随着时间的流逝,较年轻的麋鹿开始表现得更像其谨慎的“长辈”:在狩猎季四处移动得少了,并且更多地利用茂密的森林或者陡峭的岩石地形,尤其是在接近马路时。 Thurfjell介绍说,事实上,这些麋鹿是如此擅长躲避人类,以至于当它们到了9岁时,几乎对狩猎免疫。“它们在八九岁时拥有的躲避子弹的能力让人印象深刻。” 较老的麋鹿甚至能区分猎人使用的是弓箭还是枪支,并且相应地调整它们的行为。在使用弓箭的季节,它们更多地利用复杂地形——让和使用步枪的猎人相比需要更靠近猎物的弓箭猎人变得非常棘手。在用枪支狩猎的季节,麋鹿会呆在远离道路的地方,因为在那里猎人有可能会看到它们。 不过,Thurfjell认为,麋鹿并非在跟随季节的变化,而是对猎人行为作出的反应。比如,在用枪支狩猎的季节,道路上可能有更多移动缓慢的车辆。 原文链接: Learning from the mistakes of others: How female elk (Cervus elaphus) adjust behaviour with age to avoid hunters 原文摘要: In animal behaviour, there is a dichotomy between innate behaviours (e.g., temperament or personality traits) versus those behaviours shaped by learning. Innate personality traits are supposedly less evident in animals when confounded by learning acquired with experience through time. Learning might play a key role in the development and adoption of successful anti-predator strategies, and the related adaptation has the potential to make animals that are more experienced less vulnerable to predation. We carried out a study in a system involving a large herbivorous mammal, female elk, Cervus elaphus, and their primary predator, i.e., human hunters. Using fine-scale satellite telemetry relocations, we tested whether differences in behaviour depending on age were due solely to selection pressure imposed by human hunters, meaning that females that were more cautious were more likely to survive and become older. Or whether learning also was involved, meaning that females adjusted their behaviour as they aged. Our results indicated that both human selection and learning contributed to the adoption of more cautious behavioural strategies in older females. Whereas human selection of behavioural traits has been shown in our previous research, we here provide evidence of additive learning processes being responsible for shaping the behaviour of individuals in this population. Female elk are indeed almost invulnerable to human hunters when older than 9–10 y.o., confirming that experience contributes to their survival. Female elk monitored in our study showed individually changing behaviours and clear adaptation as they aged, such as reduced movement rates (decreased likelihood of encountering human hunters), and increased use of secure areas (forest and steeper terrain), especially when close to roads. We also found that elk adjusted behaviours depending on the type of threat (bow and arrow vs. rifle hunters). This fine-tuning by elk to avoid hunters, rather than just becoming more cautious during the hunting season, highlights the behavioural plasticity of this species. Selection on behavioural traits and/or behavioural shifts via learning are an important but often-ignored consequence of human exploitation of wild animals. Such information is a critical component of the effects of human exploitation of wildLife populations with implications for improving their management and conservation. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0178082 作者:Henrik Thurfjell 点击:
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