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PLoS one:斑马鱼肠道同样存在“岛屿”理论

标签: 斑马鱼 颜庆云
摘要 : 近日,中科院水生生物研究所发表在《公共科学图书馆—综合》( PLoS ONE )上的一项研究表明,斑马鱼肠道也存在“岛屿”理论,其肠道微生物物种丰富度与肠道体积、发育时间的关系符合“
近日,中科院水生生物研究所发表在《公共科学图书馆—综合》(PLoS ONE)上的一项研究表明,斑马鱼肠道也存在“岛屿”理论,其肠道微生物物种丰富度与肠道体积、发育时间的关系符合“物种—面积”这一生态学基本规律。 据该研究主要负责人颜庆云博士介绍,生物多样性的形成和维持机制一直以来都是生态学研究的重要内容。其中,最受关注的“物种—面积”关系主要是研究动、植物在典型岛屿的分布规律,而对微生物方面的研究较少。

“这是首次提出将半封闭的肠道作为‘岛屿’模型来进行研究。”颜庆云介绍说,由于动物消化道最开始是无菌的,之后通过迁入、迁出形成了特定的群落并维持一定的稳态,所以根据生物地理学“岛屿”的概念可以将消化道视为微生物生活的特殊“岛屿”。

为阐明这种特殊“岛屿”系统内微生物群落的构建和维持机制,研究人员选择模式生物斑马鱼作为研究对象。通过对斑马鱼发育过程(从胚胎发育到性成熟)肠道微生物群落研究,发现其肠道微生物的组成及物种丰富度的演替指数较低,而且主要随时间发生变化。“不过其肠道微生物群落的演替同时受生态位和随机因素的影响。”颜庆云说。

由于斑马鱼通体透明、发育快、个体较小,便于在显微镜下观察整个肠道微生物构建和演替情况,研究人员提出,斑马鱼是研究肠道这一特殊“岛屿”系统微生物群落构建及相关生态学问题的理想模型,针对该模式动物的研究结果对哺乳动物和人类肠道微生物群落的形成和维持机制研究均具有借鉴意义。

据悉,该研究得到科技部“973”课题和国家自然科学基金的资助。
原文摘要: Bacterial Community Assembly and Turnover within the Intestines of Developing Zebrafish Qingyun Yan, Christopher J. van der Gast, Yuhe Yu Background The majority of animal associated microorganisms are present in digestive tract communities. These intestinal communities arise from selective pressures of the gut habitats as well as host's genotype are regarded as an extra ‘organ’ regulate functions that have not evolved wholly on the host. They are functionally essential in providing nourishment, regulating epithelial development, and influencing immunity in the vertebrate host. As vertebrates are born free of microorganisms, what is poorly understood is how intestinal bacterial communities assemble and develop in conjunction with the development of the host. Methodology/Principal Findings
Set within an ecological framework, we investigated the bacterial community assembly and turnover within the intestinal habitats of developing zebrafish (from larvae to adult animals). Spatial and temporal species-richness relationships and Mantel and partial Mantel tests revealed that turnover was low and that richness and composition was best predicted by time and not intestinal volume (habitat size) or changes in food diet. We also observed that bacterial communities within the zebrafish intestines were deterministically assembled (reflected by the observed low turnover) switching to stochastic assembly in the later stages of zebrafish development.
Conclusions/Significance
This study is of importance as it provides a novel insight into how intestinal bacterial communities assemble in tandem with the host's development (from early to adult stages). It is our hope that by studying intestinal microbiota of this vertebrate model with such or some more refined approaches in the future could well provide ecological insights for clinical benefit. In addition, this study also adds to our still fledgling knowledge of how spatial and temporal species-richness relationships are shaped and provides further mounting evidence that bacterial community assembly and dynamics are shaped by both deterministic and stochastic considerations.
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