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浙江大学为斑马鱼订做防护服应对紫外线辐射

摘要 : 浙江大学紫金港校区的化学实验室里,一项模拟臭氧层空洞下的斑马鱼发育对照实验正在进行:在实验中,暴露在紫外线辐射下的斑马鱼卵弱不禁风,全部停止了发育并死亡;而“穿上”课题组研发的“防护服”的斑马鱼卵则茁壮成长,顺利地完成了全部发育过程。 教育部“长江学者奖励计划”特聘教授、浙大化学系教授唐睿康课题组的这项最新研究,对保护地球上的生物如何
浙江大学为斑马鱼订做防护服应对紫外线辐射
浙江大学紫金港校区的化学实验室里,一项模拟臭氧层空洞下的斑马鱼发育对照实验正在进行:在实验中,暴露在紫外线辐射下的斑马鱼卵弱不禁风,全部停止了发育并死亡;而“穿上”课题组研发的“防护服”的斑马鱼卵则茁壮成长,顺利地完成了全部发育过程。
教育部“长江学者奖励计划”特聘教授、浙大化学系教授唐睿康课题组的这项最新研究,对保护地球上的生物如何面对臭氧空洞提供了一种策略。相关论文《壳工程保护斑马鱼受精卵发育:一种臭氧稀薄环境下的生物防护策略》发表在PLoS ONE(《公共科学图书馆·综合》)杂志上。 众所周知,地球大气层中日益稀薄的臭氧层使地球表面的紫外线辐射强度明显增强,这对自然生态特别是生物的繁衍构成了严重威胁。科学家已经发现南极洲上空的臭氧空洞造成了该区域鱼类数量的急剧减少。 2008年,唐睿康课题组研发了给酵母菌“穿衣服”的方法延长酵母菌的寿命。课题组运用相同的原理,给细胞找到一件合适的抗紫外线“防护服”。 唐睿康介绍,斑马鱼是科学实验中常用的动物模型之一。经过一年多时间的研究,课题组为斑马鱼卵找到了一种基于稀土磷酸盐的生物兼容“外衣”,这种材料也是一种重要的节能灯粉,它吸收紫外线并转化为绿色荧光。把经过处理后的斑马鱼卵放入到含有稀土元素的溶液中,20分钟左右鱼卵表面就自发形成一层毛茸茸外衣,“这件‘防护服’不但‘合身’,而且对细胞的毒性相对较低。” 实验表明,穿着“防护服”的斑马鱼卵在紫外线环境下发出淡淡的绿光,受精卵发育正常,而形成的幼鱼能够像小鸡一样破壳而出。 原文摘要: Guarding Embryo Development of Zebrafish by Shell Engineering: A Strategy to Shield Life from Ozone Depletion 1 Center for Biomaterials and Biopathways, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China, 2 Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, 3 State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China Background
The reduced concentration of stratospheric ozone results in an increased flux of biologically damaging mid-ultraviolet radiation (UVB, 280 to 320 nm) reaching earth surfaces. Environmentally relevant levels of UVB negatively impact various natural populations of marine organisms, which is ascribed to suppressed embryonic development by increased radiation.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Inspired by strategies in the living systems generated by evolution, we induce an extra UVB-adsorbed coat on the chorion (eggshell surrounding embryo) of zebrafish, during the blastula period. Short and long UV exposure experiments show that the artificial mineral-shell reduces the UV radiation effectively and the enclosed embryos become more robust. In contrast, the uncoated embryos cannot survive under the enhanced UVB condition.
Conclusions
We suggest that an engineered shell of functional materials onto biological units can be developed as a strategy to shield lives to counteract negative changes of global environment, or to provide extra protection for the living units in biological research.
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